Chemistry as a science is the invention of Muslims and one they developed to such perfection that they were authorities until the 18th century.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan who lived about 776 CE is the father of modern chemistry and, with Zakariya Razi, the greatest name in chemical science in mediaeval times. He discovered several chemical compounds and his influence was felt throughout European chemistry. He wrote 100 works which were the most influential chemical treatises in Europe and Asia.
He explained scientifically the two principal operations of chemistry and improved methods of evaporation, filtration, distillation and crystallization.
Jabir corrected Aristotle's theory of the constituents of metal and explained the preparation of chemical substances like sulphide of mercury and arsenic oxide. Several technical scientific terms invented by him have been adopted in modern chemistry and he showed practical applications of chemistry like preparation of steel and dyeing of cloth and leather, varnishing of waterproof cloth and colouring glass.
Zakariya Razi is the second great name in mediaeval chemical science. He is one of the greatest physicians of all time and wrote Kitab al Asrar in chemistry dealing with the preparation of chemical substances and their application. High class sugar and glass were manufactured in Islamic countries and Arabs were expert in manufacturing ink, cements and imitation pearls.

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