In the Old Testament of the Bible, the Egyptian ruler during the period of Prophet Ibrahim and Yusuf alaihimas salaam are named ‘Pharaoh.’ However, this title was actually used after the eras in which these two prophets lived.
While speaking of the Egyptian ruler at the time of Prophet Yusuf alaihis salaam, the word ‘Al-Malik’ in Arabic is used in the Qur'an: It refers to a ruler, king or sultan:The King said, ‘Bring him to me straight away!'… (Qur'an, 12:50)
But the ruler of Egypt in the time of Prophet Musa alaihis salaam is referred to as ‘Pharaoh.’ This distinction in the Qur'an is not made in the Old and New Testaments nor by Jewish historians. In the Bible, the word ‘Pharaoh’ is used, in every reference to an Egyptian monarch. On the other hand, the Qur'an is far more concise and accurate in the terminology it employs.
The use of the word ‘Pharaoh’ in Egyptian history belongs only to the late period. This particular title began to be employed in the 14th century BC, during the reign of Amenhotep IV. Prophet Yusuf alaihis salaam lived at least 200 years before that time. Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the word ‘Pharaoh’ was a title of respect used from the New Kingdom (beginning with the 18th dynasty; BC 1539-1292) until the 22nd dynasty (BC 945-730), after which this term of address became the title of the king. The Academic American Encyclopaedia states that the title of ‘Pharaoh’ began to be used in the New Kingdom (after Prophet Yusuf alaihis salaam).
The Qur'an distinguishes between the different Egyptian titles in different Egyptian eras. Neither the Bible nor Jewish scripts makes this distinction. This is yet another proof that the Qur'an is Allah's word.
Harun Yahya

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